Functional endonasal sinus surgery
Nasal polyposis is one of the most common chronic diseases of the upper airways.
Nasal polyps are abnormal growths that develop in the mucous membrane of the nasal passages and/or paranasal sinuses. They can be solitary or multiple. The exact cause of nasal polyps has not been elucidated ye, but it is often linked to infections or allergies.
Growing polyps, when protrude into the nasal cavity, impair airflow and lead to the characteristic symptoms: nasal obstruction, watering from the nose (rhinorrhea), and a sense of pressure over the face area. With difficulty to breathe through nose, the patient begins to breathe through the mouth and can start to snore. Polyps in the paranasal sinuses are associated with recurrent sinus infections. Polyps can often cause reduced or loss of sense of smell.
During examination, an otorhinolaryngologist assesses the patient’s condition and tailors an individual treatment based on the severity of the disease (mild/moderate/severe).
Polypectomy is a surgical procedure to treat nasal polyposis, when conservative treatment is not effective.
How Is the Surgery Performed?
The procedure can be performed under local or general anesthesia. It usually takes up to 30 minutes to complete, and time in surgery depends on the number of polyps in the nasal cavity.
Polyps are removed through the nasal cavity. There are several surgical approaches:
- Intranasal polypectomy is performed when polyps are visible and easily accessed. Polyps are removed by using special forceps;
- Endoscopic polypectomy is performed when polyps are smaller, less visible, and located in the upper part of the nose or the sinuses. This surgical approach employs an endoscope.
After the surgery, the surgeon may place special nasal packing inside the nose, which is usually removed the next day.
What Should Be Known After Surgery?
- The patient should refrain from smoking for 2–3 weeks;
- For 2 weeks, the patient should avoid blowing his/her nose and physical activity, leading to increased blood pressure and bleeding;
- It is recommended to wash the nose with saltwater and use oil drops for 2 weeks after the surgery;
- Concomitant conditions (for example, deviation of the nasal septum) or prolonged disease course can result in a complete loss of sense of smell after the procedure.