Hemorrhoid removal (hemorrhoidectomy)
Hemorrhoids are enlarged and swollen vascular structures in the anus or the lower rectum. This condition is caused by changes in blood vessels and anatomy of the anus. Chronic constipation, diarrhea, prolonged straining during bowel movements, a seated job, low physical activity, and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking and alcohol consumption are factors associated with the development of hemorrhoids. Moreover, women often experience hemorrhoids during pregnancy and after childbirth.
There are 2 types of hemorrhoids: internal and external. Most commonly both internal and external hemorrhoids become enlarged. At the beginning, hemorrhoids occur inside the anal canal, but later they can protrude through the anus outside the body.
A surgical procedure to remove hemorrhoids, also known as hemorrhoidectomy, is performed when conservative treatment is not effective.
How Is the Surgery Performed?
A hemorrhoidectomy is usually performed under spinal anesthesia. It takes from 30 minutes to 1 hour to complete.
A particular surgical method is tailored individually. During the surgery, the anal canal is dilated, and enlarged hemorrhoids are cut out with a special instrument.
What Should Be Known After Surgery?
- The patient should avoid constipation, and it is recommended to use laxative medications if needed;
- Until the wound heals completely, special antiseptic ointments or solution should be used after every bowel movement.